Domoic Acid ELISA
Domoic acid (DA), the neurotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), is an excitatory amino acid containing the structure of glutamic acid and resembling kainic acid.
In 1958, domoic acid was originally isolated from the red alga called “doumoi” or “hanayanagi” (Chondria armata) in Japan. DA is also produced by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia and the species Nitzschia navis-varingica.
DA can bioaccumulate in marine organisms such as shellfish, anchovies, and sardines that feed on the phytoplankton known to produce this toxin. DA can accumulate in high concentrations in the tissues of these plankton feeders when the toxic phytoplankton itself is high in concentration in the surrounding waters.
In mammals, DA acts as a neurotoxin, causing short-term memory loss, brain damage and, in severe cases, death. In marine mammals, domoic acid typically causes seizures and tremors. In the brain, DA especially damages the hippocampus and amygdaloid nucleus. It damages the neurons by activating AMPA and kainate receptors, causing an influx of calcium. Although calcium flowing into cells is a normal event, the uncontrolled increase of calcium causes the cell to degenerate. Because the hippocampus may be severely damaged, long-term memory loss occurs.
The domoic acid ELISA is used for the quantitative analysis of domoic acid in shellfish samples (mussel, scallop, oyster). The calibration curve is virtually linear in the range 0.2 to 10 ng/ml.
The kit uses a polyclonal rabbit antibody which shows the following cross-reactivities: domoic acid (100%), okadiac acid (<0.1%), DTX-1 and DTX-2 (<0.1%), saxitoxin (<0.1%), neosaxitoxin (<0.1%), and gonyautoxins GTX2/3, 1/4 (<0.1%).
Detailed information of this ELISA is given in the Product Information Sheet.
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